By Jules H. Gilder
The Apple / / sequence of desktops represents some of the most flexible and strong domestic pcs on hand. If you could have used your desktop for some time, you've gotten most likely turn into relatively acquainted with Applesoft uncomplicated. that is solid, simply because when you comprehend that, this publication will assist you to graduate from simple programming to meeting language programming. there are lots of purposes to software your Apple in meeting language. in the beginning is velocity. meeting language is ready a hundred instances speedier than easy. if you are considering writing video games or company courses that do sorting, velocity is of the essence and meeting language is a needs to. meeting language courses often additionally require much less reminiscence. therefore you could squeeze extra complicated courses right into a smaller volume of reminiscence. ultimately, meeting language courses give you a large amount of defense, simply because they're more challenging to track and alter. whereas meeting language is robust, it does not must be tough to profit. in reality, when you can write courses in Applesoft uncomplicated, you are already half-way domestic. This booklet assumes you recognize uncomplicated and totally not anything approximately meeting language or computing device language. each attempt has been made to put in writing in nontechnical language and to set the chapters out in a logical demeanour, introducing new techniques in digestible items as and once they are wanted, instead of devoting entire chapters to express items.
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Additional info for Apple IIc and IIe Assembly Language
Bit 5 This bit is not used and is permanently set. 32 Bit 4: The Break Flag (BI This flag is set whenever a BREAK occurs, otherwise it will remain clear. This may seem a bit odd at first, because surely we will know when a BREAK occurs. However, it is possible to generate a BREAK externally by something called an Interrupt, and this flag is used to help distinguish between these 'BREAKs'. Bit 3: The Decimal Flag III I This flag tells the processor just what type of arithmetic is being used. If it is cleared (by CLD), as is usual, then normal hexadecimal operation occurs.
The result is O. Why? The reason is that the answer, 256, is too big to be held in a single byte: 128 $80 10000000 + 128 + $80 + 10000000 256 $100 (1)00000000 and as can be seen, a carry has been produced by the bit overflow from adding the two most significant bits. As the Carry flag was initially cleared before the addition, it will now be set, signaling the fact that the result is too large for a single byte. This principle is used when summing multibyte numbers, and is illustrated by Program 9, which adds two double byte numbers.
The term 'K' is short for kilo, but unlike its metric counterpart, one kilo of memory, or a kilobyte, consists of 1024 bytes and not 1000 bytes. This slightly higher value is chosen because it is divisible by 256 and corresponds to exactly four pages of memory (4 x 256 = 1024). The total memory map therefore encompasses 64K because 65536/1024 = 64! 41 10 Arithmetic in Assembler We can now put some of the basic principles we have encountered in the opening chapters to some more serious use - the addition and subtraction of numbers.