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By Oliver Leaman

Even supposing Islamic philosophy represents the most vital philosophical traditions on the planet, it has basically rather lately started to obtain consciousness within the non-Islamic international. this can be a re-creation of a profitable introductory publication, improved and up-to-date to take account of modern scholarship. It makes a speciality of what's considered as Islamic philosophy's golden age, and may entice scholars and to any basic reader drawn to this philosophical culture.

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God has thus invited human beings to assume responsibility for their judgments and to employ their reason in establishing the way they ought to behave. Of course, they will be helped by the Qur’¯an and the rest of Islamic law and tradition, but there will frequently be occasions when these sources do not comment upon particular problems and situations. We can no longer expect a prophet to reveal the right  An introduction to classical Islamic philosophy way to us in these circumstances, and it might well be argued that we should then have to use reason to work out a solution.

God) and everything else, being which is necessary through the action of something else, but contingent in itself. This theory was developed in complex ways by ibn S¯ın¯a, and in many ways has represented the party line of falsafa, ibn Rushd being a notable exception. Al-F¯ar¯ab¯ı’s thought was considerably extended and transformed by Ab¯u ‘Al¯ı al-H . usain ibn S¯ın¯a (Avicenna). He is without doubt one of the most significant philosophers produced in the Islamic world. He was born near Bukhara in / and showed a precocious fascination with learning of all kinds, something which was to characterize his very varied intellectual output for the rest of his life.

Islamic law provided details of personal and property relations, and the sorts of political structures which are acceptable. The Muslim had only to observe the Qur’¯an, the Traditions of the Prophet and his Companions, and the judgments of Introduction  the early caliphs. More abstract issues were dealt with by kal¯am, which argued towards certain theoretical analyses of concepts such as power, fate, God and freedom. In addition there existed a well-developed science of language of long standing.

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