Environmental Economics

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Further, nearly 60% (69) of indigenous breeds in OECD countries are part of active conservation programmes to maintain these breeds. In non-OECD countries, less than 20% (17) of indigenous breeds are in such programmes. Dairy production also has an impact on ecosystem diversity. Within agricultural systems, changes occur when the spatial patterns created by traditional production systems are replaced by the simpler patterns of intensive grazing, with introduced grass species, and silage cutting.

48 Water use Milk production involves both the direct and indirect use of water. The first relates to the quantity of water consumed by the cow. e. 5 litres of water (National Academy of Science, 2001). The indirect use relates to the use of water for forage production, whether pasture or fodder crops, and varies according to the geographic and climatic conditions. e. it has remained stable in most OECD countries, increasing in just a few. In both Australia and New Zealand, the issue of water use in dairy production has become a major issue as a result of increased production and the expansion of the sector in water-scare areas.

In the United Kingdom, dairy cattle were responsible for 700 water pollution incidents in 1998 where source was classified, representing almost one-third of all incidents of water pollution from agriculture (Williams and Bough, 2001). Similarly, one-third of water pollution complaints regarding livestock production in Japan in 1997 (totally 851) were caused by dairy farms (Nagamura, 1998). Trends in the nutrient content of dairy manure production and nutrient soil surface balance can be used as a proxy to reveal the potential risks to water quality from dairy farming.

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