By W H G Armytage
A Social heritage of Engineering exhibits how social and monetary stipulations in each one age have induced advances in engineering. There are, briefly, monetary, political, and philosophical implications in altering applied sciences. whereas the booklet starts with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the majority of the quantity concentrates at the 19th and 20th centuries. A Social background of Engineering displays Professor Armytage's unique topic sector pursuits, particularly nineteenth-century commercial society, radical and socialist activities, the historical past association, and the examine of upper and technical schooling.
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George (fl. 1278-1308) and Richard Lenginour (fl. 1277-1315) were outstanding and the results of their efforts remain today in castles like Conway, Flint and Rhuddlan no less than in cathedrals like Chester. TOWN PLANNING Both these kings ruled parts of France where they built a number of villes neuves to house those made homeless by war. Cadillac, Monpazier, Villeneuve, Villefranche, La Sauve, Sauveterre: the very names evoke their purpose. Guienne, Gascony and Languedoc were the chief areas. One of Edward I's English bastides, WincheIsea, owed much to Itier of Angouleme, who had done similar service for him in France, and by the end of the century Edward was able to assemble his fleet in its harbour.
When they became common the name denoting the motive power dropped and the word used was mola, molina or molendinum, from which comes our modern word mill. D. put forward a variety of suggestions for mechanizing the army. He had seen the Danube, was interested in his country's war against the Persians and, in his concern at the shortage of labour, drafted a memorandum to the emperor, probably hoping to secure employment as a technical adviser. D. 366 and 375 and entitled De Rebus Bellicis, this memorandum was, in the opinion of Professor Thompson, 'probably intercepted by a civil servant and pigeon holed'.
The result was his Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences (from which the observations on the Venetian Arsenal in the preceding section were taken). This, as its title indicates, outlines the sciences of statics (or forces in equili brium) and dynamics (or forces out of equilibrium). His discussions with shipwrights had borne fruit. The third phase of his work is perhaps the best known. Having established to his satisfaction these two 'new' sciences, he published in 1632 another Dialogue-this time on the virtues of the Copernican as opposed to the Ptolemaic cosmology.