By Dominique Raynaud
This e-book offers the 1st severe version of Ibn al-Haytham’s On the form of the Eclipse with English translation and observation, which files the 1st medical research of the digital camera obscura. On the form of the Eclipse comprises pioneering study at the stipulations of formation of the picture, in a time deemed to be dedicated to aniconism. It additionally presents an early try to merge the 2 branches of historic optics—the idea of sunshine and concept of vision.
What maybe such a lot strongly characterizes this treatiseis the shut interplay of a geometrical research of sunshine and experimental reasoning. Ibn al-Haytham carried out his experiments in a scientific approach through various all which may be replaced: the form and dimension of the aperture, the focal size of the digital camera obscura, the space and form of the celestial our bodies. this fashion, he completed a radical knowing. This paintings represents a decisive step in either the background of optics and the appliance of the experimental technique that was once simply as effective in medieval Islam as today.
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Extra resources for A Critical Edition of Ibn al-Haytham’s On the Shape of the Eclipse: The First Experimental Study of the Camera Obscura
Mathematics. The word ( ﺳ ـﻬ ـﻢsahm), literally “arrow,” occurs frequently in Ibn alHaytham’s text. , line FR of arc ŠFH (lines 623). The same word can refer to the “axis” ṢṬF of ¯ the light cone spread from the aperture (lines 130, 139) and, more critically, it can also refer to the “generatrix” SḤT of the same cone (line 135). Here any word-toword translation would fail to make the text clear. In view of this, the word sahm has been translated to “sagitta,” “axis” or “generatrix,” according to the context.
25. ( اﻟـ ـﺲal-ḥiss) here refers to eyesight. The Arabic root ḥss is long-winded: aḥassa (sentire), al-ḥass, ḥassā, ḥiss and iḥsās (sensus), ḥassās and maḥsūs (sensibilis) and al-ḥass (sentiens). On the Shape of the Eclipse has no fewer than twelve items of “sense” and its derivatives. ” to avoid any confusion. For a study of Ibn al-Haytham’s approach to perception, see Sabra (1978: 169–85; 1989, I: 67–8). For a Latin echoing of this theory (Smith 2001, 1: lii–lxxx). فالضوء repet O || 98 90 95 100 37 On the Shape of the Eclipse a whose base is the self-luminous crescent of the Sun, is parallel and similar26 to the self-luminous crescent in the first book B84r P25r as required in opposite cones.
Since the overall device cannot be depicted to scale—the Sun-Earth distance is about 1010 times more than the focal distance of the darkroom—there is no perfect picture. The reader is here provided with a three-dimensional view of the device. ) X Projection Plane Moon A Ǧ Sun D Y B Ḥ F Aperture Š Ḫ T Fig. 5. Overview of Ibn al-Haytham’s Device During the partial solar eclipse, the Sun ABǦ is covered by the Moon ADǦ. What remains of the Sun is the crescent-shaped figure ABǦD. When the aperture reduces to a pinhole (Fig.